Archive for the ‘Autism’ Category

Lancet Retracts Study Tying Child Vaccine to Autism

February 5, 2010

Michelle Fay Cortez
Bloomberg
February 2, 2010

The Lancet medical journal retracted a 1998 study that linked a routine childhood vaccine to autism and bowel disease after a U.K. investigation found flaws in the research.

The U.K. General Medical Council, which licenses doctors, concluded in a report last week that three researchers led by Andrew Wakefield at the Royal Free Hospital in London carried out invasive, unnecessary tests, failed to act in the best interest of the children, and misused public funds. It also said Wakefield didn’t disclose a conflict of interest as he was involved in legal claims against the vaccine makers.

“It has become clear that several elements of the 1998 paper by Wakefield et al are incorrect, contrary to the findings of an earlier investigation,” the editors of the Lancet wrote in a statement today.

Immunization rates plunged in the U.K. to less than 80 percent by 2003, as parents concerned about the possible health risks refused the vaccine, according to the Health Protection Agency. Ten of the 12 authors, in a 2004 article in the Lancet, backed away from the suggestion that autism and bowel disease were linked to the vaccine. A panel of U.S. government advisers found the same year that childhood vaccinations probably don’t raise the risk of autism.

The original study, involving 11 boys and one girl aged 10 and under, found bowel disease and developmental disorders in the previously normal children. The parents reported symptoms in eight of the children after they were vaccinated for measles, mumps and rubella.

‘Outrageous’

“It was outrageous,” Jeffrey Boscamp, a pediatrician at Hackensack University Medical Center in New Jersey, said by email. “Most of the authors asked for their names to be removed from the study. It’s unfortunate that it undermined confidence in vaccines when in fact it wasn’t true at all.”

With today’s action by the Lancet, the paper was retracted from the published record, stripping it of its scientific claims.

Wakefield oversees the research program at Thoughtful House, a treatment center for children with developmental disorders, in Austin, Texas.

“The allegations against me and against my colleagues are both unfounded and unjust, and I invite anyone to examine the contents of these proceedings and come to their own conclusion,” Wakefield said in a statement provided by Thoughtful House today.

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Autism Explodes As Childhood Vaccines Increase

October 6, 2009
October 5, 2009 at 8:49 pm

Paul Joseph Watson
Prison Planet.com
Monday, October 5, 2009

Autism Explodes As Childhood Vaccines Increase 051009top2

Cases of autism amongst children have doubled since 2003 according to a government survey out today, highlighting once again the direct link between vaccines containing mercury and the brain disorder, as millions more parents give the green light for their kids to be injected with the thimerosal-containing H1N1 shot over the coming weeks.

“While research has suggested that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in American children was about 1 of every 150 children, a new government study estimates that the prevalence is more likely about 1 in every 91 children,” reports U.S. News & World Report.

“The study, which is published in the October issue of Pediatrics, estimated that 110 of every 10,000 U.S. youngsters will be diagnosed at some point in their lives with an autism spectrum disorder. That currently translates to about 673,000 American children with some form of autism, according to the study.”

Claims by the CDC and the Institute of Medicine, following a whitewash study that ignored previously verified evidence, that thimerosal, a mercury based preservative, has no causal relationship to skyrocketing cases of autism have been soundly rejected by top doctors and scientists ever since.

Epidemiologist Tom Verstraeten and Dr. Richard Johnston, an immunologist and pediatrician from the University of Colorado, both concluded that thimerosal was responsible for the dramatic rise in cases of autism but their findings were dismissed by the CDC.

Cases of autism in the U.S. have now increased by over 2700 per cent since 1991, which is when vaccines for children doubled, and the number of immunizations is only increasing. Just one in 2,500 children were diagnosed with autism before 1991, whereas one in 91 children now have the disease, up from one in 150 just six years ago.

A peer reviewed study by Dr. Mark Geier which appeared in the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons showed that the IOM research was flawed because it was largely based on a Danish study by Anders Peter Hviid, which did not account for the fact that American children have a much higher mercury burden than children in Denmark.

“At the high levels (of thimerosal exposure), it is undeniable there is a causal relationship, and we have gone to high levels. Their studies, therefore are not relevant, I am not saying they are wrong, although there are many criticisms of it. It is just not relative to the US situation,” said Geier.

Geier’s study concludes that there is an increase of neurodevelopment disorders following the use of thimerosal containing vaccines.

Dr. Rashid Buttar, who has pioneered a new treatment for autistic children that removes mercury from their bodies, said the Institute of Medicine’s conclusion that mercury does not cause autism demonstrates the “complete absence of any desire to discover scientific truth at the supposed highest levels of medical academia.”

“When 31 children recover from a devastating disease by a simple transdermal treatment that detoxifies metals, then common sense dictates that perhaps metals are involved,” states Dr. Bob Nash the chairman of the American Board of Clinical Metal Toxicology (ABCMT) in regard to Dr. Buttar’s treatment.

“In 1977, a Russian study found that adults exposed to ethylmercury, the form of mercury in thimerosal, suffered brain damage years later. Studies on thimerosal poisoning also describe tubular necrosis and nervous system injury, including obtundation, coma and death. As a result of these findings, Russia banned thimerosal from children’s vaccines in 1980. Denmark, Austria, Japan, Great Britain and all the Scandinavian countries have also banned the preservative,” writes Dawn Prate.

Mercury is classified by The Department of Defense as a hazardous material that could cause death if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, and the EPA is now limiting mercury emissions from factories because the toxin “can damage the brain and nervous system and is especially dangerous to fetuses and small children,” but according to the CDC it’s perfectly safe to inject into your child’s bloodstream.

Despite concerns about thimerosal and mercury, thimerosal is an ingredient of the swine flu vaccine which is currently being rolled out for children all over the country.

“Some of the vaccine will be stored in multi-dose vials containing thimerosal, an antibacterial additive that contains mercury,” reported the Washington Post in an article about which groups will receive the swine flu vaccine first.

Indeed, the swine flu vaccine contains no less than 25,000 per cent the amount of mercury considered safe.

Around 12,000 U.S. children were used as guinea pigs for the experimental swine flu vaccine also known to contain the dangerous ingredient squalene, which has been directly linked with cases of Gulf War Syndrome and a host of other debilitating diseases.

Squalene “contributed to the cascade of reactions called “Gulf War syndrome. (GIs developed) arthritis, fibromyalgia, lymphadenopathy, rashes, photosensitive rashes, malar rashes, chronic fatigue, chronic headaches, abnormal body hair loss, non-healing skin lesions, aphthous ulcers, dizziness, weakness, memory loss, seizures, mood changes, neuropsychiatric problems, anti-thyroid effects, anaemia, elevated ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, ALS, Raynaud’s phenomenon, Sjorgren’s syndrome, chronic diarrhea, night sweats and low-grade fever,” according to Micropaleontologist Dr. Viera Scheibner.

Pharmaceutical companies can be assured that they won’t face reprisals for the many thousands of injuries and deaths that will inevitably occur as a result of exposing millions to mercury and squalene during a mass vaccination program, because the government has already acted to provide them with blanket immunity from lawsuits.

“Vaccine makers and federal officials will be immune from lawsuits that result from any new swine flu vaccine, under a document signed by Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius,” reported the Associated Press in July.

H1N1 Vaccine with Mercury and Squalene Pushed on Pregnant Women

September 16, 2009

S. L. Baker
Natural News
September 14, 2009

It’s getting crazy out there. New revelations about the novel H1N1 vaccine are raising more questions than ever about its safety while there’s a new drive to push shots of the stuff as quickly as possible on perfectly healthy pregnant women. That means the most vulnerable of all — unborn children — will be exposed to a little-tested vaccine. According to a CDC authored article just published in the British journal Lancet, “Once available, vaccination will be an essential component of the public health response to this influenza, and US guidelines place pregnant women in a high-priority group for receipt of pandemic influenza vaccine.”

Note the keys words in the statement: “once available”. The words you might expect, “once thoroughly tested for safety,” are nowhere to be found. According to an article just published in the Denver Post, Dr. Keiji Fukuda, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) own flu chief, has warned about the potential dangers of untested vaccines (although he has stopped short of criticizing Europe’s full-steam-ahead approach of promoting H!NI vaccinations).

To top it off, now comes word out of the FDA’s Vaccine and Related Biologic Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) meeting held on July 23rd that the H1N1 vaccine is going to be laced with the mercury containing preservative thimerosal. That’s right, the same thimerosal that was banned in influenza vaccines in California and several other states starting in 2004. The reason? The mercury-laden toxin has been linked to a number of health concerns — including worries thimerosal caused or contributed to the current autism epidemic.

Is this an absolute scientific fact? No, the jury is still out on the controversy but, bottom line, thimerosal contains mercury. Even more importantly, the targeting of pregnant women seems unwise. In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency EPA) web site states that “factors that determine how severe the health effects are from mercury exposure include… the age of the person exposed (the fetus is the most susceptible).”

Other worrisome tidbits of information about the vaccine have been revealed in recent days. A Lancet editorial suggests that any U.S. plan to rely on swine flu vaccines without ingredients to stretch the supply would reduce the number of vaccination shots available other countries. The solution for vaccine manufacturers, allowing them to stretch the vaccine to go further, could be the addition of ingredients called adjuvants. According to breaking news about the use of adjuvants in the H1N1 vaccine, Bloomberg is reporting these compounds have never been approved for flu vaccines in the U.S. and some studies have shown they cause immune disorders in mice. However, back on July 7, in a not-widely-reported announcement, WHO recommended that adjuvants be used to boost production quantity of vaccines available world-wide.

The Age of Autism, a daily web newspaper covering the autism epidemic, has raised some important points about these adjuvants. The web site points out that the VRBPAC was not furnished with information on the safety of adjuvants in the new flu vaccine. “Of concern is that the proposed adjuvants (AS03 and MF59) are squalene (oil) based and studies suggest that exposure to squalene is associated with production of auto-antibodies and auto-immune disease,” the web site states. What’s more, some veterans have claimed that squalene adjuvant in vaccines was responsible for Gulf War Syndrome.

According to the Lancet article, the reason the H1N1 vaccine is being pushed on healthy pregnant women is because from April 15 to May 18, 2009, there were 34 confirmed or probable (that means they were not actually scientifically confirmed as H1N1 at all) cases of H1N1 flu in pregnant US women reported to the CDC. Eleven of these (32 percent) were admitted to hospitals. That hospital admission rate is more than four times higher than for the general population.

But the authors of the article admit this high rate of hospitalization of women with H1N1 could simply be the result of doctors being more likely to admit a pregnant woman to the hospital than someone else in the general population with the exact same symptoms. So there is no real evidence that pregnant women are more hard-hit by the virus than anyone else. Yes, there were six deaths in pregnant US women believed to have the H1N1 flu between April 15 and June 16, 2009. All developed pneumonia and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome. But where is the data showing whether they were suffering from other illnesses? What was their nutritional and general health status? Did they have other infections before coming down with the flu? Was it really H1N1 that killed them?

Bottom line: there are more questions than answers about H1N1. Making assumptions, including assuming that healthy pregnant women and their unborn babies will have their health protected by being exposed to an untested vaccine with unknown long term consequences, simply doesn’t make sense. Yes, the H1N1 virus may mutate into something extremely serious. But it is important to remember that, right now, the flu it causes is relatively mild.

Doc here: Hey – it really is getting crazy out there! If you know anything about the agenda of the elite ruling class of the world, you already know that one of their primary objectives is to reduce the world population to 500 million. Yes – that’s worldwide population! Look for yourself by researching the ‘Georgia Guidestones’ then you may call me crazy too! Hey – why not use a worldwide ‘mandatory’ vaccination to kickstart the death toll – along with wars, famines, genetically modified foods, poisoned tap water, etc…   Please, please, please – do not, under any circumstances – consent to this immunization/vaccine!!! Keep yourself and your family safe from these ‘crazy’ people! Instead, protect them with the ‘Flu Prevention Kit’ – three simple and safe products to help boost your immunity to any virus, flu or otherwise.


Autism And The Paleo Diet

May 25, 2009

A gluten-free, casein-free diet is popular for autism.1 In individuals with leaky gut syndrome, it could be possible that peptides derived from milk and gluten proteins may pass into the systemic circulation. Indeed, autistic children present a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms, and a significant percentage of these children have increased intestinal permeability (the so called leaky gut).2-4

Some of these peptides that are derived from milk and gluten proteins have opiate-like activity,5 which means that if they could access circulation and pass the blood-brain barrier, they would have the capacity to influence a variety of neurotransmitter systems that regulate behaviour.2-5 Since some studies2-6 (but not all)7 have reported abnormal levels of peptides in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid of children with autism, a gluten-free, casein-free diet has been widely promoted for these children.

Nevertheless, current evidence for efficacy of these diets remains poor, and there is an urgent need for large scale, randomized controlled trials.6

Yet, evidence is increasing that autism may be autoimmune in nature,8-17 and that casein and gluten may be implicated through this mechanism.10-13 As readers are aware, we believe that gluten, dairy and other Neolithic foods, such as legumes, potatoes and tomatoes are suspected environmental triggers in various autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a class of proteins in wheat gluten called gliadins upregulates a protein called zonulin,18 which increases tight junction diameter. This increases gut permeability in virtually all people, and a leaky gut is a common phenomenon in multiple autoimmune diseases,19-39 and in autism.2-4

Therefore, it is our opinion that any dietary intervention study should include the multiple dietary factors implicated in autism, and not just gluten and casein. One such diet is the Paleo diet with its avoidance of grains, dairy, legumes, tomatoes, potatoes or other factors that increase intestinal permeability, such as hot peppers40,41 and alcohol.42

In addition, correcting zinc and vitamin D deficiency is extremely important because such deficiencies may increase intestinal permeability.43,44 Recent evidence appears to show that vitamin D deficiency may be directly implicated in autism.45

References:

1.  Elder JH. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: an overview with clinical implications. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23(6):583-588

2.  Kidd PM. Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine. Part: 1: The knowledge base. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Aug;7(4):292-316

3. Kidd PM. Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine. Part 2: medical management. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Dec;7(6):472-99

4.  White JF. Intestinal pathophysiology in autism. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003 Jun;228(6):639-49

5.  Gardner MLG. Exorphins and other biologically active peptides derived from diet. In Brostoff J, Challacombe SJ. Food Allergy and Intolerance 2nd Edition. Saunders, 2002, pgs 465-478

6. Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G. Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD003498

7. Cass H, Gringras P, March J, McKendrick I, O’Hare AE, Owen L, Pollin C. Absence of urinary opioid peptides in children with autism. Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):745-50

8. Singh VK et al. Antibodies to myelin basic protein in children with autistic behavior. Brain, Behavior and Immunity 1993;7:97-103

9.  Warren RP et al. Strong association of the third hypervariable region of HLA-DR beta 1 with autism. J Neuroimmunol 1996;67:97-102

10.  Vojdani A, O’Bryan T, Green JA, Mccandless J, Woeller KN, Vojdani E, Nourian AA, Cooper EL. Immune response to dietary proteins, gliadin and cerebellar peptides in children with autism. Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Jun;7(3):151-61

11. Vojdani A, Bazargan M, Vojdani E, Samadi J, Nourian AA, Eghbalieh N, Cooper EL. Heat shock protein and gliadin peptide promote development of peptidase antibodies in children with autism and patients with autoimmune disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 May;11(3):515-24

12. Vojdani A, Pangborn JB, Vojdani E, Cooper EL. Infections, toxic chemicals and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Dec;16(3):189-99

13. Vojdani A, Campbell AW, Anyanwu E, Kashanian A, Bock K, Vojdani E. Antibodies to neuron-specific antigens in children with autism: possible cross-reaction with encephalitogenic proteins from milk, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Streptococcus group A. J Neuroimmunol. 2002 Aug;129(1-2):168-77

14.  Enstrom AM, Van de Water JA, Ashwood P. Autoimmunity in autism. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2009 May;10(5):463-73

15. Castellani ML, Conti CM, Kempuraj DJ, Salini V, Vecchiet J, Tete S, Ciampoli C, Conti F, Cerulli G, Caraffa A, Antinolfi P, Galzio R, Shaik Y, Theoharides TC, De Amicis D, Perrella A, Cuccurullo C, Boscolo P, Felaco M, Doyle R, Verrocchio C, Fulcheri M. Autism and immunity: revisited study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009 Jan-Mar;22(1):15-9

16.  Wills S, Cabanlit M, Bennett J, Ashwood P, Amaral D, Van de Water J. Autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jun;1107:79-91

17. Zimmerman AW, Connors SL, Matteson KJ, Lee LC, Singer HS, Castaneda JA, Pearce DA. Maternal antibrain antibodies in autism. Brain Behav Immun. 2007 Mar;21(3):351-7

18.  Drago S, El Asmar R, Di Pierro M, Grazia Clemente M, Tripathi A, Sapone A, Thakar M, Iacono G, Carroccio A, D’Agate C, Not T, Zampini L, Catassi C, Fasano A. Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr;41(4):408-19

19. Cordain L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83(3):207-17

20. Fasano A. Physiological, pathological, and therapeutic implications of zonulin-mediated intestinal barrier modulation: living life on the edge of the wall. Am J Pathol. 2008 Nov;173(5):1243-52

21. Teshima CW, Meddings JB. The measurement and clinical significance of intestinal permeability. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2008 Oct;10(5):443-9

22. Meddings JB, Jarand J, Urbanski SJ, Hardin J, Gall DG. Increased gastrointestinal permeability is an early lesion in the spontaneously diabetic BB rat. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr;276(4 Pt 1):G951-7

23. Harrison LC, Honeyman MC. Cow’s milk and type 1 diabetes: the real debate is about mucosal immune function. Diabetes. 1999 Aug;48(8):1501-7

24.  Watts T, Berti I, Sapone A, Gerarduzzi T, Not T, Zielke R, Fasano A. Role of the intestinal tight junction modulator zonulin in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes in BB diabetic-prone rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22;102(8):2916-21

25. Neu J, Reverte CM, Mackey AD, Liboni K, Tuhacek-Tenace LM, Hatch M, Li N, Caicedo RA, Schatz DA, Atkinson M. Changes in intestinal morphology and permeability in the biobreeding rat before the onset of type 1 diabetes. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 May;40(5):589-95

26. Vaarala O. Is type 1 diabetes a disease of the gut immune system triggered by cow’s milk insulin? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2005;569:151-6

27. Sapone A, de Magistris L, Pietzak M, Clemente MG, Tripathi A, Cucca F, Lampis R, Kryszak D, Cartenì M, Generoso M, Iafusco D, Prisco F, Laghi F, Riegler G, Carratu R, Counts D, Fasano A. Zonulin upregulation is associated with increased gut permeability in subjects with type 1 diabetes and their relatives. Diabetes. 2006 May;55(5):1443-9

28. Bosi E, Molteni L, Radaelli MG, Folini L, Fermo I, Bazzigaluppi E, Piemonti L, Pastore MR, Paroni R. Increased intestinal permeability precedes clinical onset of type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2006 Dec;49(12):2824-7

29.  Simpson MD, Norris JM. Mucosal immunity and type 1 diabetes: looking at the horizon beyond cow’s milk. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Oct;9(5):431-3

30. Vaarala O. Leaking gut in type 1 diabetes. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 Nov;24(6):701-6

31. Fasano A, Not T, Wang W, Uzzau S, Berti I, Tommasini A, Goldblum SE. Zonulin, a newly discovered modulator of intestinal permeability, and its expression in coeliac disease. Lancet. 2000 Apr 29;355(9214):1518-9

32 . Drago S, El Asmar R, Di Pierro M, Grazia Clemente M, Tripathi A, Sapone A, Thakar M, Iacono G, Carroccio A, D’Agate C, Not T, Zampini L, Catassi C, Fasano A.  Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr;41(4):408-19

33. Lammers KM, Lu R, Brownley J, Lu B, Gerard C, Thomas K, Rallabhandi P, Shea-Donohue T, Tamiz A, Alkan S, Netzel-Arnett S, Antalis T, Vogel SN, Fasano A. Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jul;135(1):194-204.e3

34.  Smecuol E, Sugai E, Niveloni S, Vázquez H, Pedreira S, Mazure R, Moreno ML, Label M, Mauriño E, Fasano A, Meddings J, Bai JC.  Permeability, zonulin production, and enteropathy in dermatitis herpetiformis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Apr;3(4):335-41

35. Yacyshyn B, Meddings J, Sadowski D, Bowen-Yacyshyn MB.  Multiple sclerosis patients have peripheral blood CD45RO+ B cells and increased intestinal permeability. Dig Dis Sci. 1996 Dec;41(12):2493-8

36.  Vaile JH, Meddings JB, Yacyshyn BR, Russell AS, Maksymowych WP. Bowel permeability and CD45RO expression on circulating CD20+ B cells in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and their relatives. J Rheumatol. 1999 Jan;26(1):128-35

37. Wyatt J, Vogelsang H, Hübl W, Waldhöer T, Lochs H. Intestinal permeability and the prediction of relapse in Crohn’s disease. Lancet. 1993 Jun 5;341(8858):1437-9

38. D’Incà R, Annese V, di Leo V, Latiano A, Quaino V, Abazia C, Vettorato MG, Sturniolo GC. Increased intestinal permeability and NOD2 variants in familial and sporadic Crohn’s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May 15;23(10):1455-61

39. Collett A, Higgs NB, Gironella M, Zeef LA, Hayes A, Salmo E, Haboubi N, Iovanna JL, Carlson GL, Warhurst G. Early molecular and functional changes in colonic epithelium that precede increased gut permeability during colitis development in mdr1a(-/-) mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 May;14(5):620-31

40.  Jensen-Jarolim E, Gajdzik L, Haberl I, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Graf J. Hot spices influence permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayers. J Nutr. 1998 Mar;128(3):577-81

41.  Tsukura Y, Mori M, Hirotani Y, Ikeda K, Amano F, Kato R, Ijiri Y, Tanaka K. Effects of capsaicin on cellular damage and monolayer permeability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Oct;30(10):1982-6

42.  Purohit V, Bode JC, Bode C, Brenner DA, Choudhry MA, Hamilton F, Kang YJ, Keshavarzian A, Rao R, Sartor RB, Swanson C, Turner JR. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium. Alcohol. 2008 Aug;42(5):349-61

43.  Kong J, Zhang Z, Musch MW, Ning G, Sun J, Hart J, Bissonnette M, Li YC. Novelole of the vitamin D receptor in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Jan;294(1):G208-16

44.  Finamore A, Massimi M, Conti Devirgiliis L, Mengheri E. Zinc deficiency induces membrane barrier damage and increases neutrophil transmigration in Caco-2 cells. J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1664-70

45. Cannell JJ. Autism and vitamin D. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(4):750-9